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What the heck are you on about? There are a lot of techy buzzwords and funny sounding drills we use. Here is a little guide to the shorthand skiers sometimes use. Many thanks to Katherine Herzberg for editing.

AFD - Anti-Friction Device - a small pad located behind the toe-piece of the ski binding.

A - FRAME - The position that a skier's legs get into when the outside leg's knee collapses into the inner knee during the turn, or when the inner knee is not angulated into the centre of the turn. Is typically (but not always) seen as a problem to be eliminated when skiers are using shaped skis, as can be a "weak" ski position.

ALPINE SKIING - Also known as downhill skiing, uses skis the bindings of which fix the whole of the ski boot sole to the ski.

ANGULATION - When there is an angle (laterally) between the legs and the upper body. This is achieved by bending the body, so that the CoM is inside the turn and the edges are at an angle to the snow, while the body remains in balance. Angulation allows the skier to remain balanced while setting an edge (putting the ski on edge) – in the absence of Angulation the skier would topple over.

ANTICIPATION - An exaggerated Counter position used at the end of a turn. The body faces down the hill, while the skis point across the hill. Commonly used to help a skier pivot the skis downhill during the Transition, for the start of the new turn.

APEX - The point during a turn at which half of the entire direction change which that turn will produce has been completed.

ARCING - An American term for perfectly carved turns.

ARC to ARC Turns – Dynamically skied Carved Turns that are perfectly linked with a smooth Transition.

AT - Alpine Touring - AT ski equipment is specifically designed for ski-touring in steep terrain. A special Alpine Touring binding allows the heel to be clipped down for more support when skiing downhill, and allows it to be released to swing resistance-free from the toe, when climbing. Most AT bindings have DIN safety release, as in a normal alpine binding. Special ski boots with rigid soles are also used, something of a cross between a downhill ski boot and a hiking boot, light and flexible enough to be comfortable to walk up in, while still being stiff enough to provide good control when skiing down.

AVALEMENT - A French term (from "avaler" to swallow). The art of absorbing Bumps, using the legs but keeping the body still and quiet.

AVALEMENT TURNS – 'swallowing' the Bumps, so as to assist pivoting.

BACK SEAT - The position a skier is in when sitting back, with too much bend in the knees and not enough forward ankle flex.

BANKING - Poor use of Inclination to make turns , resulting in the skis not holding an edge during the turn and the skier being unbalanced.

BASEBOARD - See Zeppa.

BASI - British Association of Snowsport Instructors - A British members' organisation that licenses and provides training for ski instructors.

BASIC SWING - see Plough-Parallel Turn. A Scottish term for what BASI refer to as Plough-Parallel.

BINDING LIFTERS - See Riser Plates.

BLOCKAGE - or Blocking - When the position of some of the body's joints effectively "block" or reduce the range of movement of other joints. To feel an example of this effect stand in your skiing "goal keeper's" position with all the joints flexed and your elbows slightly out as if you are holding poles. Now raise your elbows up as high as they will go and your neck/upper body will be blocked. Similarly, drop your elbows into your sides and your lower back will be blocked.

BOOT SOLE LENGTH - the length of the ski boot (in millimetres) measured along the outer sole and including the lugs that hold the boot into the binding. This measurement is important and is used to determine DIN setting on the bindings so that they release correctly.

BoS - Base of Support - The area of the skier (the bottoms of the skis and the poles) that are in contact with the snow surface, which supports the skier's body and transmits forces from the CoM to the surface of the slope.

BRUSHES - see Carrots.

BUMPS – see Moguls.

CAMBER - The curvature of the ski's base that helps distribute the skier's weight over the length of the ski. If a ski is placed on a flat surface without any weight on it, it will be seen only to be supported at the tip and the tail, with the middle of the ski not in contact with the surface.

CARROTS - aka Brushes - Markers used to set out training courses for ski racing. Carrots are screwed into the snow and have soft tops that, if skied over, will not cause a fall.

CARVED TURN - A turn on a completely engaged ski edge, where the tail of the ski follows the tip throughout the turn radius. In general terms, it is the fastest and most efficient turn possible. See also Parallel Turn.

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE - The force the skis exert on the snow. During the turn, centrifugal force is what causes the snow to spray out from under the skis.

CENTRIPETAL FORCE - When making a turn, the force that tends to pull the body to the inside of the turn.

CHATTER - When the skis repeatedly lose and regain grip on the snow in a rapid, pulsating fashion and feel as though they are skipping sideways across the snow. Typically experienced when attempting to carve on very hard snow, ice or uneven surfaces.

Chatter can have various causes including: engaging the skis too harshly at the start of the turn, not applying pressure in a progressive manner during the turn, trying to jam the edge into the snow/ice after a ski has already started to slide, and the presence of some Steering in the attempted carve.

CLOG - The lower part of a ski boot accommodating the foot and incorporating the Zeppa.

CLOG CANT - The angle of the Clog in relation to its interface with the ground/snow. The foot should stand from the heel at 2 degrees to the lateral/outside of the perpendicular. Most ski boots stand at a neutral 0 degrees and allow the boot fitter to adapt laterally(outside) or medially(inside) depending on the stance of the skier.

CoM - Centre of Mass - The CoM represents the balance point of a three dimensional object, it is usually, but not always, inside an object. Gravity and other forces act on the CoM. The CoM of a skier is not a fixed point and moves as the skier changes position.

COMBINED FORCES - The various combinations of forces (gravity, centripetal, inertial, friction) acting on a skier.

CONVERGING - Skiing with the tips of the skis closer together than the tails, for example when in a Snowplough position.

CORN SNOW – Consistency of highly granular snow that forms when the bonds between snow granules begin to melt. Only happens off-piste and is a velvety smooth skiing surface that generally occurs only for a short period of time before turning slushy.

COULOIR – aka Chute or Gully - A steep narrow passage between rocks. Couloirs should always be approached and skied with care.

COUNTER - aka Counter Rotation or Counter-Acting - When the skier has mastered Separation and the skis are pointing across the hill, whilst the upper body is facing down the hill, the skier is then in a Countered position.

Note that Counter is not a deliberate move. It happens as a RESULT of the skier turning the skis under the body, using Separation.

COUTEAUX - A French term for Ski Crampons.

CRAMPONS - There are two types of Crampons used when ski-mountaineering or touring:

Boot Crampons - Are fitted to the boot and are used when hiking/climbing without skis on.

Ski Crampons - aka couteaux and Harscheisen. Are fitted to the underside of ski-touring bindings and provide the skier with stability when crossing icy or rocky terrain. When gliding or walking, the heel is free to move upwards and the crampons are not in contact with the snow during the forward glide. Once the foot is forward, the heel comes down and the crampon, which is slightly wider than the ski and protrudes below the base of the ski, "bites" into the surface.

CROSSOVER - A Transition from one turn to the next, when the CoM generally rises and crosses over the BoS (joints are extended as the skis go flat) frequently seen on the flatter sections of a GS course.

CROSSUNDER - A Transition from one turn to the next, where the BoS moves under the CoM, the CoM generally stays low (joints are flexed as the skis go flat), frequently seen in tight slalom gates.

CRUST - A hard snow surface lying upon a softer layer. Crust may be formed by sun, rain or wind, and is described as Breakable Crust or Unbreakable Crust, depending upon whether it will break under the weight of a turning skier.

CSCF - Canadian Ski Coaches Federation.

CSIA - Canadian Ski Instructors Alliance.

CUFF - The higher part of the ski boot which wraps around the leg aka Collar.

DEPTH HOAR - A granular "sugar" structure of snow that is formed at the base of the snow pack when cold temperatures create a temperature gradient in the snow and the snow re-forms into crystals that do not bond well together. Can be a very weak layer and cause avalanches.

DIN SETTING - Deutsche Industrie Normen. An internationally agreed scale that is used to adjust the spring tension release setting on ski bindings to ensure that bindings from any manufacturer release at a consistent point. This figure is determined using the skiers height/weight, ability level and boot sole length.

Because the release settings of bindings affects the skier's health and safety, adjustments should only be carried out by trained professionals, as mistakes can be very dangerous.

DIVERGING - Skiing with the tips of the skis further apart than the tails.

DOWNHILL - The side of the body which is facing the downhill, or lower, side of the slope. Also used to denote the longest, fastest type of alpine race course.

DPTM – Direct Parallel Teaching System – see PMTS.

EDGE ANGLE - The angle formed between the snow and the base of a tipped ski. The larger the angle, the more the ski will bend, and the more sharply the skier will turn.

EDGING - Tipping the skis into the hill to obtain grip on the snow.

ENSA - Ecole Nationale de Ski d’Alpinisme - French official governing body which trains and certifies ski instructors, mountain guides, piste patrollers and other alpine-related professionals.

ESF - Ecole du Ski Français - The largest ski school in France with over 250 local schools in their association and over 15,000 ski instructors. Local ESF ski schools are cooperatives of self-employed instructors, organised and run by a committee of elected instructors.

EURO TEST - aka Speed Test - A timed GS race that must be passed as part of the highest instructor certification levels in the Euro Zone countries. A pace-setter runs the course and his time is adjusted, using a handicap reflecting his skill level. The adjusted time is meant to be equivalent to the time in which the current fastest skier in the world rankings would have run the course. Males must get within 19% (females 25%) of the adjusted time to pass. A skier can be exempted from the Euro Test if he/she has achieved less than 100 FIS points in approved races.

EURO ZONE - A group of European countries that recognises each other's highest level of instructors, granting equivalent status in each country. Currently includes Great Britain, France, Italy and Austria.

EXTENSION - The lengthening of the body by straightening out the joints.

FALL LINE - The hypothetical path an object would take if allowed to roll freely down a given slope.

FEMUR STEERING - See Leg Steering.

FIS - Fédération Internationale de Ski - The world governing body for all disciplines of ski racing.

FIS CODE - aka Alpine Responsibility Code - A list of 10 codes of conduct to which all skiers should adhere.

FIS POINTS - Skiers competing in FIS-recognised events are given points depending on their result, for each race in which they participate. The fewer the FIS points, the higher the ranking, with the best skier in the world having zero FIS points in the rankings.

FLAT LIGHT - Visibility conditions in which viewed objects are not obscured or hazed, but their shape or perspective is distorted in relation to background. May occur in different ways and be mitigated by differently coloured optical lenses:

1) The light source is very diffuse, such as from an overcast sky. Because the light rays do not come from one easily defined source, shadows are distorted and significantly reduced from the accustomed ones, and the contrast is very low. (Blue lens conditions.)

2) The light source is in an unusual position in the sky (eg on the horizon at sunset or from low-mounted lamps during night skiing). Shadows and glints are very prominent, making for high contrast but distorted perception shapes. (Yellow, amber, persimmon, pink lens conditions.)

FLEXION - The shortening of the body by bending the joints.

FLOW LINE - See Fall Line, the same thing but a nicer, less scary term...

FOOT STEERING - turning the skis primarily by twisting the feet and knee joints. Typically good for quick rotary movements of the skis when the ski bases are flat to the snow, but can place too much strain on the knee joints if the skis are on edge, or when skiing difficult snow conditions.

FORWARD LEAN ANGLE - The angle of the ski boot's Cuff in relation to the horizontal outsole of the Clog.

"FIX THE HEEL, FIX THE PROBLEM" - The alpine skier's retort to quasi-religious Telemark skiers.

FREE HEELERS - Telemark skiers.

"FREE THE HEEL, FREE THE MIND" - The Telemark skiing mantra.


GATES - Are used in ski racing to define the line that the racers must follow. Two basic building blocks are used to construct courses: an Open Gate, in which the turning pole and the outside pole are horizontal to each other, and a Closed Gate, in which the poles are vertical. The following gate combinations are used in setting Slalom courses:

Delay Gate - aka Banana - An open and a closed gate set in succession and vertical to each other, designed to change the skier's speed and direction and move the line across the hill.

Hairpin - Two closed gates set in succession and vertical to each other, which force the skier to make two rapid turns, exit effected in same direction across the slope as entry.

Verticale aka Flush - Three (or more) closed gates resulting in 3 rapid turns.

Royal Flush - 4 closed gates (or 3 closed + 1 open), resulting in 4 rapid turns (often set diagonally across the slope).

GRASS SKIING - Downhill skiing on grassy surfaces using special "skis" with rollers and standard alpine ski boots.

GRAUPEL - aka Snow Pellets - refers to precipitation that forms when supercooled droplets of water condense on a snowflake, forming a 2–5 mm ball of rime ice. Graupel is both denser and more granular than ordinary snow. The combination of weight and low viscosity makes fresh layers of graupel unstable on slopes, and layers of 20-30 cm present a high risk of dangerous slab avalanches. In addition, thinner layers of graupel falling at low temperatures can act like ball-bearings below subsequent falls of more naturally stable snow, rendering them also liable to avalanche. Graupel tends to compact and stabilise approximately one or two days after falling, depending on the temperature and the properties of the graupel.

GS - Giant Slalom - An alpine ski race that involves skiing between sets of gates spaced at a greater distance to one another than in Slalom, but not as great as in Super G. The number of gates in this event ranges from 56 to 70 for men and from 46 to 58 for women.



HARSCHEISEN - A German term for Ski Crampons.

HERRINGBONE - Technique of moving uphill having the skis in a V-shape with the tips of the skis much wider apart than the tails. Named after the marks left by the skis when this technique is used.

HIP ANGULATION - A form of Angulation in which the legs are tipped more into the turn than the upper body. Generally used as a means of managing lateral balance (keeping or moving weight on/to the outside ski) whilst putting a ski on edge. Accomplished either by tipping sideways at the waist, or by facing the upper body towards the outside of the turn and flexing forward at the waist. Provides a safer and stronger body position for resisting turn forces than Knee Angulation.


ILE - Inner Leg Extenstion - A Transition which is initiated by pushing down on the old inside (uphill) foot, and slightly extending the old inside leg. This extension disrupts the skier's state of balance, and causes the CoM to begin moving across the skis.

INCLINATION - The leaning movement of tipping the body into a turn to create Edge Angle, whilst keeping the joints in a straight line.

INERTIAL FORCE - When making a turn, the force that tends to pull the body to the outside of the turn.


INSIDE EDGE - In the EU is the ski edge which is innermost in the turn. In the USA, is the big toe side of either ski.

INSIDE SKI – During a turn, the ski that is on the inside of the turn. For example, if making a turn to the left, the inside ski will be the left ski.

ISIA - International Ski Instructors Association - A global organisation of national level ski instructor associations. Sets internationally recognised standard levels for ski instructors and organises international conferences.

JET TURN - A peculiar turn invented by Jean Claude Killy in the 70s and popularised by Martin Heckelman in the 80s, in which the ski tips "jetted" forward with the body weight going back and was meant as a technique for skiing moguls. Fortunately forgotten by most skiers and only mentioned here for completeness.

JUMP TURN - Any turn in which the skis leave the surface of the snow. Typically used in steep or variable snow conditions and/or to turn in a narrow corridor.

KICK TURN - A manoeuvre that allows the skier to rotate 180 degrees and change direction without losing altitude. Start in a static position with skis parallel and across the fall line with both poles planted uphill. Swing lower ski forward and up, resting the tail on the snow and close to the tip of the other ski. Rotate the lower ski 180 degrees, swinging the ski back to the snow so that the lower ski is facing in the opposite direction to that of the upper ski. Slightly shift weight to the lower ski. Lift upper ski and position it up, over and parallel to the old downhill ski. Both skis are now facing in the opposite direction to that at the start of the turn.

KNEE ANGULATION - A form of Angulation in which the lower leg is tipped more into the turn than the upper leg. Generally used as a means of managing lateral balance (keeping or moving weight on/to the Outside Ski) whilst putting a ski on edge. Accomplished by flexing the knee and rotating the leg towards the inside of the turn, whilst not turning the foot. As an Angulation option, it provides the greatest range of balance management potential, but also creates a weak and more injury-prone body position.

LDM - Looking Down Mountain

LEG STEERING - aka Thigh Steering or Femur Steering - Turning the skis by holding the hip joint still and moving the femur across the body. Usually used to get the skis tips to move to the inside of the turn and increase Edge Angle on both skis.

LINKING TURNS - Making several controlled turns in succession, without stopping between turns or resorting to long traverses across the slope.

LUM - Looking Up Mountain

MOGULS – aka Bumps - Small hills/hummocks of snow that develop on a slope over time, and are caused by skiers turning. Also a competitive freestyle discipline.

MOUNTAIN GUIDE - The only professional that can take clients on to un-pisted glacial terrain or into areas where the use of ropes and harnesses may be necessary.

NASTAR - NAtional STAndard Race - A ski racing programme in the USA which allows skiers through a handicap system, a way to compare themselves with one another and with the national champion, regardless of when and where they race.

NORDIC SKIING - Skiing using equipment in which the heel of the ski boot is not fixed to the ski and allows the skier to go uphill and downhill. Includes Telemark and cross country skiing.

OLR - Outside Leg Relaxation - A Transition which is initiated by relaxing the old outside (downhill) leg. This relaxation disrupts the skier’s state of balance, and causes the CoM to begin to move across the skis.

OUTSIDE EDGE - In the EU refers to the ski edge that is outermost in the turn. In the USA refers to the little toe side of either ski.

OUTSIDE SKI - The ski that is on the outside of the turn, during the turn. For example, if making a turn to the left, will be the right ski.

PARALLEL TURN - A turn in which both the skis are matched (without Tip Lead) and parallel to each other for the duration of the turn, and both of the Inside Edges (EU definition) are engaged. Parallel turns in which the skis are fully engaged and not skidding, are known as Carved Turns.

PARK and RIDE - Term used to denote skiers making turns which are carved, but which lack continuous dynamic movement through the turns.

PHANTOM FOOT - A common ski injury to the knee, termed the Phantom Foot because of the leg and foot being rigidly attached to the ski, thus effectively increasing the overall length of the whole limb. Phantom Foot injuries can occur when the tail of the downhill ski, in combination with the stiff back of the ski boot, acts as a lever to apply a unique combination of twisting and bending loads to the knee and typically results in a torn ACL during relatively slow falls or movements.

Three types of situations typically lead to Phantom Foot injuries:
attempting to get up while still moving after a fall;
attempting a recovery from an off-balance position;
attempting to "sit down" after losing control.

PIVOTING - Twisting of the skis/feet in between turns, while the skis are unweighted (see Unweighting).

PIVOT SLIP - See Braquage.

PLOUGH TURN - See Snowplough Turn.

PLOUGH-PARALLEL TURN - A turn that starts as a Snowplough Turn but, as the turn finishes, the Inside Ski is rotated about centre of the foot so as to be parallel with/match the Outside Ski and to remain parallel during the Transition to the next turn. To start the next turn, the skis are rotated about centre of the foot so as to bring the tips inwards and the tail outwards, reforming the plough shape as the skier progresses into the next turn. Balance is then established on the (new) Outside Ski, so as progressively to build pressure through the turn.

PMTS - Primary Movements Teaching System - aka Direct Parallel Teaching System - A ski teaching system founded by Harald Harb in the USA, on the premise that the new shaped skis require a new method of teaching, and which continually references high end skiing (eg racing) as a model to which to aspire. One of the characteristics of this system is that a Snowplough Turn is not utilised.

PRE-RELEASE - A term used when the binding releases the ski earlier than expected.

PRESSURED SKI - aka Weighted Ski - when the ski is in contact with the snow and is taking some or all of the skier's weight. To illustrate: if you are standing still on a flat surface and you pick up one foot slightly the ski on which you are standing and which is supporting you, is 'weighted' or 'pressured'.

PSIA - Professional Ski Instructors of America - A membership group that provides training to ski instructors in the USA.

RAILING - An exercise in which the skier tips both skis on to their edges and the turn is made by letting the Side Cut of the skis dictate the turn radius. The desired turn, with little or no skidding, should leave narrow tracks resembling rails in the snow.

Also used to signify the bad trait of a skier who is trying to Carve a turn, but is only using Edging and is not actively Pressuring the skis.

RAMP ANGLE - The angle of the boot's Zeppa in relation to the horizontal of the outsole of the Clog. Many confuse this with Forward Lean Angle.

RANDONEE - See AT, a French term for Alpine ski touring.

RETRACTION - A Transition in which both legs are relaxed, and the skis are allowed to pass unrestricted under the body.

REVERSE CAMBER - As pressure is applied to a ski, it will bend from its normal camber into a reverse camber, in which the tip and tail sections are bent upwards. This stores energy into the ski and reduces its effective turning radius, thus allowing for tighter turns and making carving easier.

RISE LINE - The opposite of Fall Line. The Rise Line is an imaginary line running directly uphill from any point on the slope. This term is typically used to define a point above a racing gate at which a turn should begin. How high up the Rise Line a turn should begin is dependent on slope steepness, snow conditions and the location of the next gate. It is also dependent on how skilful the skier is, as the faster racer will typically turn closer to the gates

RISER PLATES - aka Binding Lifters - Flat plates which are mounted between the tops of the skis and the bindings. Riser plates have two functions, first to transmit the load from the skier's boot more evenly, thus producing a more consistent flex within the ski. Secondly, when a ski is tipped on to one edge, the point of contact with the snow is off-centre in relation to the centre of the skier's ankle. By increasing the distance of the skier's ankle from the snow with a Riser Plate, the line of force transmitted from the ankle through to the surface is nearer to the edge of the ski in contact with the snow, thereby enabling the ski to hold its edge more effectively.

ROTATION - Rotation is a twisting of the joints and is one of three fundamental elements employed by the skier to turn the skis, the other two elements being Edging and Pressuring. In Foot Rotation, the feet and ankles are twisted into the turn with the skis staying relatively flat to the surface of the slope. A good example of turning using only Rotation is the Braquage drill.

The term is also used to signify the rotation of the skier's upper body, with over-rotation generally seen as a bad habit of early stage skiers, who attempt to steer the skis by turning their shoulders into the inside of the turn. See Counter for a description of under-rotation.

SCHMEAR TURN - A turn which involves dropping the inside hip right into the snow so as to act like a brake, invented by Scot Schmidt, star of the 80s ski film 'A Blizzard of Aahs'.

SCHUSS – a fast, straight, downhill run on skis, without slowing down or turning.

SCISSORING - When viewed from above, the position of the skis during a turn in which the skier's Inside Ski is ahead of the Outside Ski, with its tip diverging away from that of the Outside Ski.

SEPARATION - Utilising the skiing joints (lower joints comprising ankles, knees and hip sockets) independently of the upper body.

SIDE CUT - The curve (viewed from above) of each edge of a modern ski, as a result of its having a wide tip and tail, but a narrow waist. The greater the degree of Side Cut, the easier it is to achieve Reverse Camber without the necessity of excess pressuring and thus to carve a turn.

SIDE CUT RADIUS - The measurement (in metres) of the radius of the imaginary circle of which the Side Cut forms part. The lower this figure, the more the ski is designed to make tight short turns.

SIDE SLIP - A way to lose height whilst travelling straight down the Fall Line of the slope. With both skis pointing across the Fall Line and the edges engaged, the Edge Angle is reduced by tipping the edges downwards. This will start a controlled side slip, which can then be stopped by re-engaging the edges with the snow.

SKIDDING - The sideways travel of one or both of the skis across the snow, without the ski edges being engaged . Skidding can be an effective means of speed control.

SKINS - A device used to enable ski mountaineers/randonneurs/touring skiers to hike/slide up snow-covered mountain slopes with their skis on. Originally made of seal skin, now manufactured using a combination of synthetic and natural fibres, they are affixed to each ski base: the surface of the skin in contact with the snow has protruding fibres, and the other surface a sticky substance, allowing the skin to be affixed to and removed from the base of the ski as necessary. The protruding fibres have a "direction" retracting and flattening to the base of the skis, allowing the skins/skis to glide on the skier's uphill stroke, but extending and biting into the snow when the skier is stationary, so that the skier does not slip downhill. Thus skins enable progress one uphill step at a time. They should be removed when commencing a major descent, but can be left on for short downhill traverses.


SLOW-DOG NOODLE - The slow-dog noodle turn was invented by Robert "Boogie" Mann in the early 70s and popularised by Wayne Wong, and is also known as a Wong turn. The term combines Hot Dogging with slow speed and apparently 'floppy' dynamics of a wet noodle.

It is a Retraction/Extension turn in Bumps done at an incredibly slow tempo. The really slow/noodle part of the turn is where the skier's legs seem to collapse as the skis ride up the back of the bump, and the knees come right up to chest level with the torso first folding forward, then because of the leverage on the pole, being left quite far behind. The skis almost come to a stop, then pivot over the crest and start down the hill while the torso extends forward to prepare for the next absorption. If done well the pole is forward at the plant, but stays in the snow for so long (holding the skier up and acting as a fulcrum point) that the hand and pole end up quite far back at the end of the turn.

SNOWPLOUGH TURN – aka Wedge Turn - A turn in which the tips of the skis are together, the tails are apart and both Inside Edges (US definition) are engaged with the snow.

SNOW PELLETS - See graupel.

SPEED TEST - See Euro Test.

STACKING - aligning the joints so that they are in the best position to resist the forces to which the skier is subject. Stacking is accomplished by utilising the skeletal frame to maintain a position which minimises the use of the muscles.

Example : imagine a weightlifter trying to lift a bar, he tries to position his body so that the load is transmitted to the ground directly through his skeleton, rather than using his muscles.

STEERING - Twisting of the skis/feet while the skis are pressured/weighted. See also Waist Steering, Foot Steering and Leg Steering.

STEERING ANGLE - The angle formed between the longitudinal axis of the ski and the direction of travel of the skier. A ski with Side Cut will produce a greater steering angle than a straight ski.

STEM CHRISTY TURN - The term "Christy" derives from Christiania (now Oslo) where the turn was developed. The skier initiates a Stem Turn from a parallel traverse by "stemming" or brushing the tail of the Uphill and new Outside Ski up and into the Snowplough, with the ski tips staying at a consistent degree of separation, and completes the turn by retracting the other ski to a parallel position at the end of the turn. Rather old-fashioned way of skiing, more commonly used with straight skis lacking Side Cut. The modern equivalent is the Plough-parallel Turn where the skier does not brush out the heel, nor lift the Inside Ski but rather rotates the skis about the centre of the foot instead of the tip of the skis.

STEM STEP TURN - A turn made by picking up the Outside Ski off the snow and stepping it out, so as quickly to form a stable plough shape. Is used primarily in difficult snow conditions such as Breakable Crust.

STEM TURN - Similar to a Snowplough Turn, the difference being that the plough shape becomes narrower/more parallel during the Transition to a new turn and, when entering the next turn, the Outside Ski is brushed outwards. The next stage in this type of turn would be to get the skis fully parallel at the Transition and make Stem Christy Turns.

STUBBIES - Short poles used to set out training courses for ski racing. Being shorter than full size poles, Stubbies help the ski-racing athlete to get used to skiing closed race courses (see Gates) without having to block? poles out of the way.

SUPER G - Super Giant Slalom - An alpine ski race with courses that are longer and faster than in GS but shorter than in Downhill.

TELEMARK SKIING – aka Free Heel Skiing - A type of skiing which uses the Telemark turn. Unlike alpine skiing equipment, the skis used for Telemarking have a binding that connects the boot to the ski only at the toes, just as in cross-country skiing. Telemark turns are led with the heel flat on the Outside Ski, while the Inside Ski is pulled beneath the skier's body with a flexed knee and raised heel. The turn incorporates Tip Lead, but the skis are parallel, and 50-80% of the body weight is on the Outside Ski, depending on snow conditions.

TEST TECHNIQUE - A timed slalom race that must be passed by anyone wishing to enter the French ENSA instructor training programme or to teach in France with an ISIA level instructor certificate from another country. A pacesetting instructor runs the course and his time is adjusted using a handicap reflecting his skill level. The adjusted time is meant to be equivalent to the current fastest French Ski Instructor as determined at an annual national challenge race. Males must get within 20% (females 25%) of the adjusted time to pass.

THIGH STEERING - see Leg Steering.

TIP LEAD - When one ski is leading the other but the skis are parallel to each other. Inner Tip Lead is when the Inside Ski is forward of the Outside Ski and vice versa.

TRANSITION - The period of time, and the manner in which, one turn is brought to an end and a new turn is begun.

TRANSCEIVER - An electronic beacon which emits and detects a signal. When skiing it is worn on the body and switched to emit a signal. All transceivers can be switched into a detect mode and used to locate an avalanche victim wearing a transceiver in emit mode.

UPHILL - when skiing, refers to the side of the body which is facing the uphill side of the slope.

UNWEIGHTING - Reducing the amount of weight on the skis to manipulate and control pressure. There are four ways to 'unweight':
UP-UNWEIGHTING - A rapid upward Extension of the body, typically used at the end of a turn to aid the Initiation and Transition into the next turn.
DOWN-UNWEIGHTING - Produced by a rapid downward Flexion of the body.
REBOUND-UNWEIGHTING - produced by the skis de-cambering and returning the energy at the end of a turn.
TERRAIN-UNWEIGHTING produced by using the terrain to help unweight the skis.

WAIST STEERING - A method used to turn the skis, by engaging core strength to twist the body below the waist so as to tip the skis on edge and power the Outside Ski and outside half of the body through the turn, while simultaneously establishing an efficient and strong stance to serve as a stable base and facilitate Countering/Angulation as necessary.

WEDELN - An old-fashioned way of sking from the 50s in which a skier rhythmically swings the rear of the skis from side to side while following the Fall Line, with the skis very close together.

WEDGE TURN - See Snowplough Turn.

WEIGHTED RELEASE - formerly called the White Pass Lean - A Transition made famous by American ski racer Steve Mahre in the early 1980s. The old outside (downhill) leg carries all the skier's weight through the entire Transition, and the new turn is initiated by simply rolling that ski over on to its downhill edge and starting the new turn on that same ski. Weight is transferred to the other (new outside) ski somewhere around the apex of the new turn.

WEIGHTED SKI – see Pressured Ski.

WHITE OUT - An atmospheric optical phenomenon that severely restricts visibility in which the observer appears to be engulfed in a uniformly white glow as a result of a lack of contrast between a sky obscured by snow, fog or cloud and unbroken snow cover. Neither shadows, horizon, nor clouds are discernible; sense of depth and orientation is lost; dark objects in the field of view appear to "float" at an indeterminable distance.

WHITE PASS LEAN - see Weighted Release

WORM TURN - A turn where the skier drops to the snow and rolls his body in a worm-like fashion (or a barrel roll) and then gets up and proceeds in the opposite direction. For example: start by traversing across the slope left to right, lie down on the snow on your uphill hip, roll your right shoulder under your body and stop rolling when you are on your back and get up going in a right to left traverse.

ZEPPA - Italian for Footbed - aka Baseboard - The part of a ski boot that fits into the boot's Clog, providing the foot with a flat platform. This is a wedge shape, thinner at the toe end and deeper at the heel, pitching the foot and skier forwards.

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